The Constitutional Principle: Separation of Church and State
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Religious Measures in Congress 1888 - 1949

"but no religious test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any office or public Trust under the United States."

"Congress shall make NO LAW respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,..."

Research by Jim Allison


Persistent Attempts at Religious Legislation in Our Time

The Record of Fifty-eight Years (1888-1945)

Nothing demonstrates more clearly the departure from the American and Christian principle upon which the government of the United States was founded-that of religious liberty, or the total separation of church and state-than the demand for national religious legislation, as shown by the large number of religious bills introduced into Congress since 1888. And, as the following list shows, this movement for the uniting of church and state in this government is being carried forward largely through a demand for Sunday legislation. Of the 142 religious measures following, ninety-three relate to Sunday observance, seventy-one of which are for a Sunday law for the District of Columbia; eleven relate to one day rest in seven for the District of Columbia.

Religious Measures in Congress since 1888

[Note.-S. stands for Senate; H. R. for House of Representatives; S. Res. for Senate Resolution; H. J. Req. for House Joint Resolution; the numbers following these indicate the number of the bill; matter following number of bill gives title or description of bill; the name, date, committee, etc., following this indicate who introduced it, when introduced, committee to which refer-red, fate of measure, and volume and page in Congressional Record where reference to bill may be found.

C. R. 19:4455 means Congressional Record, Volume XIX, p. 4455.]

Fiftieth Congress 1888-1889

S. 2983. " To secure to the people the enjoyment of the first day of the week, commonly known as the Lord's day, as a day of rest, and to promote its observance as a day of worship" [in any . . . place subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States]. Introduced by Senator Blair of New Hampshire, May 21, 1888; referred to Committee on Education and Labor; hearing on bill December 13, 1888; report of hearing Miscellaneous Document No. 43; not reported out of committee. C. R. 19:4455.

S. Res. 86. " Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States respecting establishments of religion and free public schools. " Blair of New Hampshire, May 25, 1888; ordered to lie on table; later, Dec. 22, 1888, referred to Committee on Education and Labor; hearing on measure February 15 and February 22, 1889; not reported. C. R. 19:4615.

Fifty-First Congress 1889-1890

S. 946. " To secure to the people the privileges of rest and of religious worship, free from disturbance by others, on the first day of week " [in any . . . place subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States]. Blair of New Hampshire, December 9, 1889; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 21:124.

S. Res. 17. " Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States respecting establishments of religion and free public schools ." Blair of New Hampshire, December 9, 1889; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 21:124.

H. R. 3854. " To prevent persons from being forced to labor on Sunday" in the District of Columbia. W. C. P. Breckinridge of Kentucky, January 6, 1890; to Committee on District of Columbia; hearing on bill before subcommittee, February 18, 1890; not reported. C. R. 21:403. (See Washington Post, Feb. 19, 1890, p. 7.)

Fifty-Second Congress 1892

H. R. 194. " To prohibit the opening of any exhibition or exposition on Sunday where appropriations of the United States are expended ." Morse of Massachusetts, January 5, 1892; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 23:130.

H. R. 540. " To prevent persons from being forced to labor on Sunday [in the District of Columbia] ." Breckinridge of Kentucky, January 7, 1892; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 23:203.

S. 2168. " To prohibit the opening of any exhibition or exposition on Sunday where appropriations of the United States are expended ." Colquitt of Georgia, February 11, 1892; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 23:1047.

S. 2994. " To prevent the sale or delivery of ice within the District McMillan of Michigan, April 25, 1892; to Committee on District of Columbia; reported with amendments; not acted on. C. R. 23:3607, 4480.

H. R. 8367. " Prohibiting the delivery and sale of ice within the District of Columbia on the Sabbath day, commonly known as Sunday ." Hemphill of South Carolina, April 25, 1892; to Committee on District of Columbia; reported back with amendments; passed House; not acted on in Senate. C. R. 2333639, 4480.

H. R. 7520. Sundry Civil bill, containing an appropriation to Chicago World's Fair, conditioned on Sunday closing . Approved August 5, 1892. (See U. S. Slat., vol. 27, part 1, pp. 363, 388.)

H. R. 1075. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day provide for celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America " (with proviso for closing Columbian Exposition on Sundays). Reilly of Pennsylvania, August 4, 1892; to Committee of the Whole House; passed House and Senate; approved August 5, 1892. C. R. 23:7040, 7064-7, 7086, 7102. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 27, part 1, pp. 389, 390.)

Fifty-Third Congress 1894

S. 56. " Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States" [God in the Constitution]. Senator Frye of Maine, January 25, 1894; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 26~1374.

S. 1628. " To protect the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday, as a day of rest and worship in the District of Columbia ." Gallinger of New Hampshire, February 15, 1894; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 2632211.

H. R. 6215. " To protect the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday, as a day of rest and worship in the District of Columbia ." Morse of Massachusetts, March 10, 18!)4; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 26:2827.

H R 6592. . . " For Sunday rest " [in District of Columbia]. Johnson of North Dakota, A41"IL 5, 1894; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 26:3490.

S. 1890. "For Sunday rest" [in any territory, district, or place subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States]. Kyle of South Dakota, April 12, 1894; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 26:3688.

Fifty-Fourth Congress 1896

H. R. 167. " To protect the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday, as a day of rest and worship in the District of Columbia ." Morse of Massachusetts, December 6, 1895; to Committee on District of Columbia: not reported. C. R. 28:48.

S. Res. 28. (Text and title not given in C, R.) acknowledging God in the Constitution of the United States. Frye of Maine, December 16, 1895; to Committee on Judiciary. C. R. 28:168.

H. Res. 28. " Proposing an amendment to the preamble of the Constitution of the United States acknowledging Almighty God as the source of all power and authority in civil government, the Lord Jesus Christ the Ruler of Nations, and His revealed will as authority in civil affairs." Morse of Massachusetts, December 16, 1895; to Committee on Judiciary. C. R. 28: 184.

S. 1441. " To protect the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday, as a day of rest and worship in the District of Columbia ." McMillan of Michigan, January 9, 1896; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 28:526.

H. R. 6893. " To protect the first day of the week as a day of rest and worship in the District of Columbia. " Wellington of Maryland, March 5, 1896; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 28:2516.

S. 2485. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " McMillan of Michigan, March 11, 1896; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 28:2678.

H. Res. 157. (Text and title not given in C. R.) to amend the preamble to the Constitution of the United States so it will acknowledge God. Willis of Delaware, March 30, 1896; to Committee on Judiciary. C. R. 28:3374.

S. 3136. " For Sunday rest " (in District of Columbia). Kyle of South Dakota, May 13, 1896; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 28:5154.

S. 3235. " To regulate labor and business on Sunday in the District of Columbia. " Kyle of South Dakota, May 28, 1896; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 28:5827.

H. R. 9679. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Washington of Tennessee, December 16, 1896; to Committee on the District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 29:229.

Fifty-Fifth Congress 1897

S. 920. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia ." McMillan of Michigan, March 19, 1897; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 30:68.

H. R. 1075. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia ." Harmer of Pennsylvania, March 19, 1897; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 30:91.

Fifty-Sixth Congress 1900-1901

H. R. 9829. " To provide for celebrating the 100th anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory . . . in . . . St. Louis ." Lane of Iowa, March 21, 1900; to Special Committee on Centennial of the Louisiana Purchase; amended and favorably reported: passed House February 18, 1901, without Sunday-closing condition; referred to Senate Committee on Industrial Expositions; reported favorably (Senate Report 2382); passed Senate February 23, 1901, with Senator Teller's amendment: "That as a condition precedent to the payment of this appropriation the directors shall contract to close the gates to visitors on Sundays during the whole duration of the fair"; went to conference, House nonconcurring in Sunday-closing amendment (I-1. R. Report 2976); went to second conference, House receding from nonconcurrence, and both houses agreeing, March 1, 1901, to bill as passed by Senate. Approved March 3, 1901. C. R. 34:2872-4. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 31, part 1, pp. 1440-1445.)

H. R. 10592. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Allen of Maine, April 10, 1900; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 33:3995.

Fifty-Seventh Congress 1902

S. 5334. " Requiring places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday ." McMillan of Michigan, April 19, 1902; to Committee on District of Columbia: not reported. C. R. 35:4422.

H. R. 13970. " Requiring places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday. " Jenkins of Wisconsin, April 24, 1902; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 35:4655.

H. R. 14110. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Allen of Maine, April 30, 1902; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 35:4905.

S. 5563. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Dillingham of Vermont, May 1, 1902; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 35:4909.

Fifty-Eighth Congress 1903-1904

H. R. 4859. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Allen of Maine, November 24, 1903; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 37:472.

H. R. 11819. " Requiring certain places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday. " Wadsworth of New York, February 4, 1904; to Committee on District of Columbia; reported favorably; amended and passed House; referred to Senate Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 38:1646, 4077, 4375, 4414.

Fifty-Ninth Congress 1905-1907

H. R. 3022. " To prevent Sunday banking in post offices in the handling of money orders and registered letters ." Sibley of Pennsylvania, December 5, 1905; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 40: 112.

S. 1653. " To prevent Sunday banking in post offices in the handling of money orders and registered letters. " Penrose of Pennsylvania, December 14, 1905; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; reported adversely and indefinitely postponed. C. R. 40:385, 2747.

H. R. 10510. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Allen of Maine, January 5, 1906; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 40:747.

H. R. 12610. " To authorize the United States Government to participate in the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition ." Maynard of Virginia, January 20, 1906; to Committee on Industrial Arts and Expositions; reported with amendments, with proviso, "that as a condition precedent to the appropriations herein provided for, the Jamestown Exposition Company shall contract to close exhibits and places of amusement to visitors on Sundays"; did not come to vote. C. ,R.

40: 1336 5486, 5637.

H. R. 16483. " Requiring certain places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday ." Wadsworth of New York, March 9, 1906; passed House June 11, 1906, but not reported by Senate Committee. C. R. 40:3655, 8268-71, 8307.

H. R. 16556. " To prohibit labor on buildings, and so forth, in the District of Columbia on the Sabbath day. " Heflin of Alabama, March 12, 1906; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 40:3711.

S. 5825. " To authorize the United States Government to participate in the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition," with proviso, "That as a condition precedent to the payment of the appropriations herein provided for, the Jamestown Exposition Company shall contract to close exhibits and places of amusements to visitors on Sundays ." Daniel of Virginia, April 23, 1906; to select Committee on Industrial Expositions; reported with amendment, but not brought to vote. C. R. 40:5682, 7589.

H. R. 19844. United States Sundry Civil bill, appropriating two hundred fifty thousand dollars to the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition. June 29, 1906, House and Senate agreed to bill with following proviso: "That, as a condition precedent to the payment of this appropriation in aid of said exposition, the Jamestown Exposition Company shall agree to close the grounds of said exposition to visitors on Sunday during the period of said exposition." Approved June 30, 1906. C. R. 40:9673-4. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 34, part 1, pp. 764-768.)

S. Res. 215. "That the Postmaster General be directed to inform the Senate by what authority post offices are required to be kept open on Sunday, together with the regulation of Sunday opening, as to the extent of the business that may be transacted, and also what the provisions are for clerical help, and whether postal clerks and carriers are required to work more than six days per week." Burkett of Nebraska, January 9, 1907; considered and agreed to. C. R. 41:804.

Sixtieth Congress 1907-1909

H. R. 327. " To restore the inscription 選n God we trust' upon the coins of the United States of America." 0. M. James of Kentucky, December 2, 1907; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:18.

H. R. 353. " Requiring the motto 選n God we trust' to be inscribed on all forms of moneys hereafter issued by the United States. " Sheppard of Texas, December 2, 1907; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42: 19.

H. R. 4897. " To further protect the first day of the week as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Allen of Maine, December 5, 1907; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42: 186.

H. R. 4929. " Prohibiting labor on buildings, and so forth, in the District of Columbia on the Sabbath day. " Heflin of Alabama, December 5, 1907; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42:186.

S. 1519. " To prevent Sunday banking in post offices in the handling of money orders and registered letters. " Penrose of Pennsylvania, December 9, 1907; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 42:209.

H. R. 11295. " Authorizing the continuance of the inscription of a motto ["In God we trust"] on the gold and silver coins of the United States ." Moore of Pennsylvania, December 21, 1907; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:467.

H. R. 13471. " Prohibiting work in the District of Columbia on the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday. " Lamar of Missouri, January 13, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42:666.

H. R. 13648. " Requiring the motto 選n God we trust' to be inscribed on all coins of money hereafter issued by the United States, as formerly ." Reale of Pennsylvania, January 14, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:706.

S. 3940. " Requiring certain places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday. " Johnston of Alabama, January 14, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; hearing on bill before Senate subcommittee, April 15, 1908; amended and reintroduced by Mr. Johnston, May 1, 1908, as S. 3940, with Calendar No. 605 [report No. 5961 attached; reported favorably; passed Senate May 15, 1908; introduced in House May 16, 1908; hearing on bill before House District Committee, February 15, 1909; not reported by House Committee. C. R. 42:676, 5514, 6434.

H. R. 14400. " Requiring the motto 選n God we trust' to be restored to certain coins ." Ashbrook of Ohio, January 20, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:899.

H. R. 15239. " Requiring certain places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday ." Langley of Kentucky, January 27, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42:1166.

H. R. 15439. " Providing for the restoration of the motto 選n God we trust' on certain denominations of the gold and silver coins of the United States ." Wood of New Jersey, January 28, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:1257.

H. R. 16079. " Providing for the restoration of the motto 選n God we trust' on certain denominations of the gold and silver coins of the United States ." McKinney of Illinois, February 3, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42:1505.

H. R. 17144. " Providing for the restoration of the motto 選n God we trust' on certain denominations of the gold and silver coins of the United States. " Foster of Illinois, February 14, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; not reported. C. R. 42: 205 1.

H. R. 17296. " Providing for the restoration of the motto 選n God we trust' on certain denominations of the gold and silver coins of the United States ," McKinley of Illinois, February 17, 1908; to Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures; reported favorably; passed House March 16; referred to Senate Committee on Finance March 17; reported favorably; passed Senate May 13. Approved May 18, 1908. C. R. 42:2106, 3384, 6189. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 35, part 1, p. 164.)

H. R. 19965. " For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest " [in the District of Columbia]. Hay of Virginia, March 27, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42:4058.

S. 6535. " For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia " (first section did not mention Sunday, or first day of week, and so prohibited labor on all days). Johnson of Alabama, April 7, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; hearing on this and the original S. bill No. 3940 before it was remodeled, before Senate subcommittee February 15, 1909; not reported. C. R. 42:4458.

S. 6853. " To amend an act entitled 羨n act to license billiard and pool tables in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes "' requiring that "all such places shall be closed during the entire twenty- four hours of each and every Sunday." Gallinger of New Hampshire, April 28, 1908; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 42:5324.

S. Res. 125. "Proposing an amendment to the Constitution acknowledging the Deity " (by beginning the preamble "In the name of God"). Richardson of New Jersey, February 4, 1909; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 43:1827.

Sixty-First Congress 1909-1910

H. J. Res. 17. " Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, so that it shall contain a recognition of God and shall begin with the words 選n the name of God ."' Sheppard of Texas, March 18, 1909; to Committee on Judiciary; hearing granted National Reformers before subcommittee, April 11, 1910; not reported. C. R. 44:105.

S. 404. " For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Johnston of Alabama, March 22, 1909; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 44:135.

H. R. 13876. " Requiring certain places of business in the District of Columbia to be closed on Sunday. " Livingston of Georgia, December 10, 1909; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 45:90.

H. R. 14619. " Prohibiting labor on buildings, and so forth, in the District of Columbia on the Sabbath day. " Heflin of Alabama, December 14, 1909; to Committee on District of Columbia; adversely reported on by District Commissioners to House District Committee (see Washington Star and Washington Times, February 17, 1910, and Washington Post, February 18, 1910); not reported. C. R. 45:140.

S. 404. Calendar No. 75, report No. 81. " For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Johnston of Alabama, January 17, 1910; to Committee on District of Columbia; reported favorably by Senate Committee; amended and passed Senate January 27, 1910; introduced in House January 28, 1910; hearing before House Committee on District of Columbia March 8 and 16, 1910; not reported. C. R. 45:669, 1072-1073, 1207.

H. R. 21455. " Declaring it lawful to play harmless athletics and sports in the District of Columbia on the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday. " Coudrey of Missouri, February 21, 1910; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 45:2193.

H. R. 26462. " Providing a weekly day of rest for certain post-office clerks and carriers ." Bennet of New York, June 1, 1910; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 45:7244.

Sixty-Second Congress 1911-1912

S. 237. " A Bill for the Proper Observance of Sunday as a Day of Rest in the District of Columbia. " Johnston of Alabama, April 6, 1911; to Committee on District of Columbia; favorably reported by committee, but failed of passage in Senate. C. R. 47:105.

H. J. Res. 93. " For adopting the decalogue and Jesus' rule as standard measure for laws and regulations of the government of the United States ." Pepper of Iowa, May 9, 1911; to Committee on Rules; not reported. C. R. 47: 1175.

H. R. 9433. " A Bill for the Observance of Sunday in Post Offices. " Mann of Illinois, May 16, 1911; not passed. C. R. 47:1259.

H. R. 14690. " Prohibiting labor on buildings, etc., in the District of Columbia on the Sabbath Day. " Heflin of Alabama, December 6, 1911; not reported. C. R. 48:59.

H. R. 21279, amended by Mr. Mann to provide " That hereafter post offices [of the first and second classes] shall not be opened on Sundays for the purpose of delivering mail to the public. " Passed; approved. August 24, 1912, and became effective in post offices September 1, 1912. C. R. 48:4883. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 37, part 1, p. 543.)

H. R. 25682. " To punish violations of the Lord's Day in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes. " Howard of Georgia, July 10, 1912; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 48:8881.

Sixty-Third Congress 1913-1914

S. 752. " For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Johnston of Alabama, April 12, 1913; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 50:161.

H. R. 7826. " To provide for the closing of barber shops in the District of Columbia on Sunday. " Keating of Colorado, August 27, 1913; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 50:3827.

H. R. 9674. " Prohibiting labor on buildings, etc., in The District of Columbia on the Sabbath Day. " Heflin of Alabama, December 2, 1913; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 51:92.

S. 5124. " To grant all employees in the District of Columbia one day of rest in each seven days of employment. " Martine of New Jersey (for Hughes), April 1, 1914; not passed. C. R. 5136097.

S. 7047. " To provide for the closing of-barber shops in the District of Columbia on Sunday. " Works of California, December 22, 1914; not passed. C. R. 52:490.

Sixty-Fourth Congress 1915-1916

H. R. 111. " To grant all employees in the District of Columbia one day of rest in each seven days of employment. " Buchanan of Illinois, December 6, 1915; not reported. C. R. 53:16.

H. R. 652. " To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday. " Keating of Colorado, December 6, 1915; not passed. C. R. 53:28.

S. 645. " To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday ." Works of California, December 7, 1915; not passed. C. R. 53:84.

S. 5677. "For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Jones of Washington, April 20, 1916; not passed. C. R. 53:6476.

Sixty-Fifth Congress 1917

H. R. 128. " To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday ." Keating of Colorado, April 2, 1917; not passed. C. R. 553124.

S. 2260. "To protect the Lord's Day, commonly called Sunday, from desecration and to secure its observance as a day of rest in the District of Columbia ." Smith of Maryland, May 11, 1917; not passed. C. R. 55:2085.

S. 3162. "For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Jones of Washington, December 11, 1917; not passed. C. R. 56:114.

Sixty-Sixth Congress 1919-1920

S. 635. "For the proper observance of Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Jones of Washington, May 23, 1919; not passed. C. R. 58:151.

H. R. 12504. " To protect the Lord's Day, commonly called Sunday, and to secure its observance as a day of rest in the District of Columbia ." Temple of Pennsylvania, February 13, 1920; not passed. C. R. 59:2880.

Sixty-Seventh Congress 1921-1922

H. R. 4388. "To promote the public health by providing for one day of rest in seven for employees in certain employments ." Zihlman of Maryland, April 19, 1921; to Committee on District of Columbia: not passed. C. R. 61:461.

S. 1948. " To regulate the conducting of business in the District of Columbia on Sunday ." Myers of Montana, June 2, 1921; not passed. C. R. 61:2003.

H. R. 9753. " To secure Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia. " Fitzgerald of Ohio, January 5, 1922; not passed. C. R. 62:860.

Sixty-Eighth Congress 1924-1925

S. 3218. " To secure Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia and for other purposes. " Jones of Washington, May 2, 1924; not passed. C. R. 65:7666.

H. R. 12448. " To secure Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes ." Lankford of Georgia, February 28, 1925; not passed. C. R. 66:7666.

Sixty-Ninth Congress 1926

H. R. 7179. " To secure Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes. " Lankford of Georgia, January 8, 1926; not passed. C. R. 67:1732.

H. R. 7822. " To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday. " Keller of Minnesota, January 16, 1926; not passed. C. R. 67:2268.

H. R. 10123. " To prohibit . . . amusements on Sunday in the District of Columbia. " Edwards of Georgia, March 8, 1926; not passed. C. R. 67:5256.

H. R. 10311. " To secure Sunday as a day of rest in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes. " Lankford of Georgia, March 13, 1926; not passed. C. R. 67:5587.

S. 4167. " To enforce conformity to State laws on Sunday observance at Government military reservations. " Harris of Georgia, May 4, 1926; not passed. C. R. 67:8655.

S. 4821. " To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday. " Copeland of New York, December 14, 1926; not passed. C. R. 68:419.

Seventieth Congress 1927-1931

H. R. 78. " To secure Sunday as a clay of rest in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes ." Lankford of Georgia, December 5, 1927; not passed. C. R. 69:20.

S. 2212. "To provide for the closing of barbershops in the District of Columbia on Sunday." Copeland of New York, November 21, 1929; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 71:5862.

H. R. 8767. " To prohibit the showing on Sunday of films transported in interstate commerce, and to prohibit on Sunday shows, performances, and exhibitions by theatrical troupes traveling in interstate commerce and for other purposes. " Lankford of Georgia, January 17, 1930; to Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce; not passed. C. R. 72:1843.

H. R. 16153. " To provide for the closing of barbershops on Sunday in the District of Columbia ." Stalker of New York, January 14, 1931; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 74:2193.

S. 6077. " Providing for the closing of barbershops on Sunday in the District of Columbia ." Copeland of New York, February 6, 1931; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 74:4121.

Seventy-Second Congress 1931-1932

S. 1202. "Providing for the closing of barbershops on Sunday in the District of Columbia. " Copeland of New York, December 9, 1931; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 75:205.

H. R. 8092. " Providing for the closing of barbershops on Sunday in the District of Columbia ." Amended to "one day in seven." May 20, 1932. Stalker of New York, January 20, 1932; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 75:2379.

H. R. 8759. " To prohibit commercial advertising by means of radio on Sunday. " Amlie of Wisconsin, February 2, 1932; to Committee on Merchant Marine, Radio, and Fisheries; not passed. C. R. 75:3294.

S. 4023. " Providing for the closing of barbershops one day in every seven in the District of Columbia ." Copeland of New York, March 10, 1932; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 75:5628.

Seventy-Fifth Congress 1937-1938

H. R. 3291. " To regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes ." (Contained Sunday- closing clause.) Quinn of Pennsylvania, January 19, 1937; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 81:313.

S. 1270. " To regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes ."

(Contained Sunday-closing clause.) Copeland of New York, February 1, 1937; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 81:610.

H. J. Res. 226. " To close bowling alleys on Sunday in the District of Columbia ." Short of Missouri, February 16, 1937; to Committee on District of Columbia; not passed. C. R. 81: 1264.

H. R. 7085. "To regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes." Quinn of Pennsylvania, May 17, 1937; passed both Houses of Congress and became a law. Approved June 7, 1938.

When-H. R. 3291 failed of passage, H. R. 7085, which provides only for one day of rest in seven without specifying a particular day, was introduced and passed. C. R. 81:47 16, 4742. (See U. S. Stat., vol. 52, part 1, p. 623, chap. 322, sec. 14.)

H. J. Res. 519. " To declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable, to provide a penalty for mailing same, and for other purposes. " ("Writings of any kind . . . intended to cause racial or religious hatred or bigotry or intolerance.") Dickstein of New York, November 25, 1937; to Committee on Post Office and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 82:379.

Seventy-Sixth Congress 1939

H. R. 3517. " To promote the general welfare through the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in providing more effective programs of public education ." (Not to prohibit any State making any of these funds available, if it wishes, to children attending nonpublic schools.) Larrabee of Indiana, January 31, 1939; to Committee on Education; not reported. C. R. 84:980.

H. J. Res. 228 [Reintroduced as H. J. Res. 65 in 77th Congress]. " To declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable, to provide a penalty for mailing same, and for other purposes. " Dickstein of New York, March 24, 1939; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 84:3280.

H. R. 5732. " Designating Good Friday in each year a legal holiday. " ("To be dedicated to prayer for social and religious tolerance.") Sutphin of New Jersey, April 12, 1939; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 84:,4177.

Seventy-Seventh Congress 1941

H. J. Res. 65 [Same as H. J. Res. 228 in 76th Congress]. " To declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable, to provide a penalty for mailing same, and for other purposes. " ("Writings of any kind designed or adapted or intended to cause racial or religious hatred or bigotry or intolerance, or to, directly or indirectly, incite to racial or religious hatred or bigotry or intolerance.") Dickstein of New York, January 16, 1941; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 87:183.

S. 983. " To amend the act to regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes, " [giving barbers a right of referendum to choose the day all barbershops shall be closed in the District of Columbia]. Reynolds of North Carolina, February 26, 1941; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 87:1405.

H. R. 3852. " To amend the act to regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes, " [containing a clause giving barbers a right of referendum to choose the day all barbershops shall be closed in the District of Columbia]. Mr. Schulte of Indiana, March 6, 1941; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 87: 1945.

H. R. 5444. " To amend the act to regulate barbers in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes, " [containing clause giving barbers right to choose day all barber shops shall close in the District of Columbia]. Schulte of Indiana, July 30, 1941; to Committee on District of Columbia. Amended to include exemption for those who observe another day than the barbers may choose. Passed House. Amended in Senate and passed; returned to House and placed on consent calendar. Objection raised. Returned to Senate. Not passed. C. R. 87:6488.

Seventy-Eighth Congress 1943-1944

H. R. 2328 [Reintroduced under same number with 2d section in 79th Congress]. " To declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable, to provide a penalty for mailing same, and for other purposes. " ("Writings of any kind, containing any defamatory and false statements which tend to expose persons designated, identified, or characterized therein by race or religion, any of whom reside in the United States, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy, or tend to cause such persons to be shunned or avoided, or to be injured in their business or occupation.") Lynch of New York, March 29, 1943; to Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 89:2670.

S. 1700 [Reintroduced Jan. 6. 1945 as S. 16, 79th Congress]. " To amend the District of Columbia Barber Act. " (Barbers to vote on a day for all to close shops. Exemption from majority choice for one making "a showing made to the Board that the designated closing day conflicts with the tenets of his religion: And provided further, That his establishments shall be closed on the Sabbath of his particular religion.") McCarran of Nevada, February 7, 1944; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 1276.

S. J. Res. 139. "Designating period from Thanksgiving Day to Christmas of each year for Nation-wide Bible reading. " (Ending Clause: " in order that 訴n God we trust' as an expression of our national life may hold new and vital meaning for all our citizens .") Byrd of Virginia and Capper of Kansas, June 22, 1944; to Committee on Judiciary; reported with amendment (S. Rept. 1231); passed Senate, preamble rejected. C. R. 90:6460, 8482, 9431.

H. J. Res. 301 [see also H. J. Res. 3021. " Designating the period from Thanksgiving Day to Christmas of each year for Nation-wide Bible reading. " (Same as H. J. Res. 139, with omission of: " in order that 訴n God we trust' as an expression of our national life may hold new and vital meaning for all our citizens .") Voorhis of California. June 23, 1944; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 9036680.

H. J. Res. 302 [same as H. J. Res. 301 of same date]. McLearr of New Jersey, June 23, 1944; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 90:6680.

Seventy-Ninth Congress 1945

S. 16. " To amend the District of Columbia Barber Act ." (Compulsory closing on Sabbath of choice.) McCarran of Nevada, January 6, 1945; to Committee on District of Columbia; not reported. C. R. 91:77.

H. R. 2328 [See 78th Congress, same Bill No.]. " To amend title 18, Criminal Code, to declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable ." ("Writings of any kind, containing any defamatory and false statements which tend to expose persons designated, identified, or characterized therein by race or religion, any of whom reside in the United States, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy or tend to cause such persons to be shunned or avoided or to be injured in their business or occupation.") Lynch of New York, February 23, 1945; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 91:1401.

S. 717. " To authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States in more adequately financing education. " (Includes provision for aid for nonpublic schools.) Mead of New York and Aiken of Vermont, March 8, 1945; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R. 91: 1887.

S. J. Res. 46. " To provide for the use of the words 前bserve Sunday' in the cancellation of United States mail. " Capper of Kansas, March 12, 1945; to Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads; not reported. C. R. 91:1998.

H. J. Res. 120. " Designating period from Thanksgiving Day to Christmas of each year for Nation-wide Bible reading " "in order that 訴n God we trust' as an expression of our national life may hold new and vital meaning for all our citizens ." Voorhis of California, March 13, 1945; to Committee on the Judiciary; not reported. C. R. 91:2165.

Eightieth Congress 1947

H. R. 156. " To authorize the appropriation of funds in order to assist in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities in elementary and secondary schools ." (Includes provision for aid for nonpublic schools.) Welch of California, January 3, 1947; to Committee on Education and Labor; not reported. C. R.

H. R. 263. " To declare certain papers, pamphlets, books, pictures, and writings nonmailable. " ("All papers, pamphlets, magazines, periodicals, books, pictures, and writings of any kind, containing any defamatory and false statements which tend to expose persons designated, identified, or characterized therein by race or religion, any of whom reside in the United States, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy or tend to cause such persons to be shunned or avoided or to be injured in their business or occupation.") Lynch of New York, January 3, 1947; to Committee on Post Office and Civil Service; not reported. C. R.

H. J. Res. 58. " Urging that representatives of religious organizations serve as advisers to the American delegation of the United Nations and to the American delegations at all peace conferences. " Patterson of California, January 8, 1947; to Committee on Foreign Affairs; not reported. C. R.

S. 199. " To authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States in more nearly equalizing educational opportunities among and within the States ." (Includes provision for aid for nonpublic schools.) Aiken from Vermont, January 15, 1947; to Committee on Labor and Public Welfare; not reported. C. R.

S. J. Res. 36. " To provide for use of the words 前bserve Sunday' in the cancellation of the United States mail. " Capper of Kansas, January 20 (legislation day January 15), 1947; to Committee on Civil Service; not reported. C. R.

S. 472. " To authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in financing a minimum foundation education, and for other purposes ." (Including provision for aid for non-public schools.) Taft of Ohio, January 31, 1947; to Committee on Labor and Public Welfare; not reported. C. R.

H. R. 1981. " Declaring Good Friday in each year a legal holiday. " Sasscer of Maryland, February 17, 1947; to Committee on Judiciary; not reported. C. R.


Source of Information:

"Attempts at Religious Legislation from 1888-1945." American State Papers on Freedom in Religion. 4th Revised Edition. Published in 1949 for The Religious Liberty Association, Washington, D.C. First Edition Compiled by William Addison Blakely, of the Chicago Bar. (1890) under the Title American State Papers Bearing on Sunday Legislation. pp. 264-281.